Cost Of Oxygen Delivery

Oxygen generated by pressure swing adsorption (PSA) can cost as little as $0.05/pound.  Slow release peroxygen compounds cost as much as $100/pound of released oxygen.  Hydrogen peroxide costs about $1.80/pound of released oxygen.  Peroxides and peroxygens can release oxygen at rates that exceed the water solubility of oxygen, leading to off-gassing, wasted oxygen, and even higher net costs.  Pure oxygen in compressed gas cylinders or as liquid oxygen ranges from $.30/pound to $1.50/pound.

Oxygen Source

Cost per Pound




Not effectively distributed in the subsurface

Hydrogen Peroxide


Potential for fire hazard and chemical burns

Oxygen Cylinders


Potentially hazardous/heavy cylinders

Liquid Oxygen/GLC


Potentially hazardous/some vent waste

PSA Oxygen/GLC


Safe: low-pressure oxygen at a minimal volume


Liquid oxygen is lost to venting from dewar storage if not used at a rate that exceeds the venting rate.  Off-gassing from ground water commonly occurs for peroxides and peroxygens when the DO concentration exceeds 50 mg/L.  As an example, during the first demonstration of in-situ bioremediation using hydrogen peroxide, approximately 98% of the potential oxygen content was wasted (US EPA, 1990).  Soil gas measurements in the unsaturated zone above the treated aquifer indicated oxygen concentrations as high as 60% by volume – strong evidence of dissolved oxygen dissolution.